Saturday 17th May, 2014
10am to 1230pm
Studio 9 Wellness Centre
St George Studios, 93-97 St George Road
£20 pay check or cash on
This is an interactive workshop that will help you build other's self confidence through gaining a greater understanding of self esteem and self confidence. You will gain understanding about anxiety, and how we can use it to enhance our performance in various settings. This workshop will give you skills to build confidence of others, and helping them with anxiety control.
“Raised my focus on individuals within my squad- confidence and anxiety, increase awareness of my own behaviours effects on squad and recognise individual character traits and coach accordingly."
"How to deal with players emotions better, how to prepare players better and things to improve in my own coaching performance. Understanding behaviour, how to deal with and how to improve."
"Understanding of pressure and anxiety; symptoms of low/high confidence and ideas to boost confidence"
"Interesting, upbeat and good examples. Great course. I really enjoyed it."
Understanding the psychological components that help with optimal athletic performance is a key priority for applied sport psychology. A controversial issue within the field is perfectionism. Perfectionism is described as a broad multidimensional personality trait characterised by the pursuit of extremely high standards; striving for flawlessness, and over critical performance evaluation (Frost et al. 1990; Flett & Hewitt, 2005). Some may debate that being a perfectionist athlete is admirable because of the desire to achieve, and high motivation levels (Stoeber, Uphill, & Hotham, 2009). Nevertheless, perfectionism in sport is a controversial issue to which perfectionistic tendencies are seen as both adaptive and maladaptive (Frost et al, 1993; Terry-Short et al., 1995).
The multidimensional perfectionism scale devised by Hewitt & Flett (1991) evaluates perfectionism from three perspectives; self-orientated; other orientated and socially prescribed perfectionism. Self-orientated is the
excessive desire for perfectionism from one’s self, other orientated is demanding perfection from those around you and socially prescribed is the perception that significant others demand perfection from you (Flett &
Hewitt, 2005). There has been much controversy within the literature regarding which dimensions are adaptive and maladaptive, but the general consensus is that socially prescribed is associated with the unhealthy maladaptive perfectionism and self-orientated is linked to healthy adaptive (Hill et al. 1997; Flett &
Adaptive perfectionism can be explained as a positive pursuit towards achievement, whereas maladaptive perfectionism is associated with being concerned with evaluation; having a fear of failure and reacting negatively to defeat (Stoeber et al., 2008). Adaptive perfectionists typically set realistic goals prior to performance which ensures self confidence and motivation is maintained due to the belief that goals are obtainable (Slade & Owens, 1998). Therefore, adaptive perfectionism positively correlates with self-efficacy, motivation and high achievement amongst other desirable characteristics (Bieling et al. 2004).
Flett and Hewitt reported that although certain components of perfectionism may be positive, perfectionism is primarily maladaptive among athletes and exercisers (2005). Maladaptive perfectionism is positively associated with psychological difficulties such as distress (Stoeber & Eismann, 2007), injury (Krasnow et al. 1999), depression (Minarik & Ahrens, 1996); self destruction; anxiety (Antony et al, 1998; Egan et al, 2006); neuroticism; personality disorders and eating disorders (Haase et al 2001; Anshel, 2004); decreased physical health and well-being due to over training, disordered eating, and low self esteem (Hill et al, 2010; Hewitt & Flett 1991; Hewitt et al. 1992). Hall (2006) also detailed that perfectionism is also associated with shame (Tangney, 2002); performance anxiety (Hall, Kerr & Mathew, 1998); and suicide ideation (Hewitt, Flett, & Turnbull-Donavon, 1992). Evidence suggests that perfectionism may also act as a predisposing factor to athletes developing burnout during their performance career (Hill et al, 2008). When goals are not reached, maladaptive perfectionists engage in harsh self criticism and irrational beliefs resulting in feelings of inadequacy; reduced motivation and decreased self-confidence (Flett & Hewitt 2005).
The cognitive processes underpinning perfectionism were first examined by Horney (1950 In, Hall, 2013) and Ellis (1962, In. Hall, Hill & Appleton, 2013) who argued the core qualities of perfectionism are having a set of
irrational beliefs and a dysfunctional attitude. Flett et al. (1998) found that perfectionists may induce a pattern of intrusive self-focused thoughts about achieving perfectionism. Hill and Appleton (2011) showed that this cognitive process has corrosive influence on the quality of motivation in elite junior athletes. Nevertheless, there has been little research conducted on how perfectionism has been defined in sport, as the core qualities have emerged from other achievement disciplines.
Blatt (1995) offered that perfectionists may be resistant to direct attempts to alter ways of thinking and therefore, it may be effective to structure the learning and performance environment to change the perfectionist cognitions. Being able to create an optimal motivational climate in athletes is also likely
to lead to increased participation and enjoyment (Keegan, Harwood, Spray & Lavallee, 2009). Environments which are seen to be extremely critical, rigid and promote social comparison will foster numerous debilitating cognitive and affective outcomes (Mainwaring, 2009 In. Hall & Hill, 2012). Providing a learning environment to promote adaptive perfectionism may be an effective way to challenge perfectionist mindset.
Are coaches able to identify which athletes have perfectionist traits? And how can we help coaches create an environment to promote adaptive perfectionism and healthy motivation? Ideally, for coaches, it would be beneficial to not only know the signs of a perfectionist athlete, but also how to create the best environment to dissolve maladaptive perfectionism. In line with Stirling and Kerrs’ suggestions for future research, “the development of guidelines for coaches and parents to assist them in assessing, monitoring, and motivating
perfectionistic athletes may also be helpful.” (2001, p. 22), I believe that it would be beneficial for coachecs to have a better understanding on getting the best out of their perfectionist players.
Appleton, P. R., Hall, H. K.,& Hill, A. P.(2009) Relations between multidimensional perfectionism and burnout in junior-elite male athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 457-465 DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.12.006
Appleton, P. R., Hall, H. K.,& Hill, A. P. (2011) Examining the influence of the parent-initiated and coach-created motivational climate upon athletes’ perfectionistic cognitions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 661-671.DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.551541
Bieling, P.J., Israeli, A., Smith, J. & Antony, M.M. (2004) Is perfectionism good, bad, or both? Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1373-1385.
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DiBartolo, P.M., Frost, R., Dixon, A. & Almodovar, S. (2001) Can Cognitive Restructuring Reduce the Disruption Associated with Perfectionistic Concerns? Behavior Therapy, 32, 167-184.
Dunn, J.G.H., Gotwals, J.K., Causgrove-Dunn, J. & Syrotuik, D.G. (2006) Examining the relationship between perfectionism and trait anger in competitive sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4 (1), 7-24.
Flett, G.L., Hewitt, P.L., Blankstein, K.R., & Gray, L. (1998) Psychological stress and the frequency of perfectionistic thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1363-1381. 2009
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Psychological Science, 14, 14-18
Flett, G.L., Hewitt, P.L. & Dyck, D.J. (1989) Self-orientated perfectionism, neuroticism, and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 731-735.
Frost, R.O., Heimberg, R.G., Holt, C.S., Mattia, J.I., Neubauer, A.L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfection. Personality and Individual Differences, 14(1), 119-126.
Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C. & Rosenblate, R. (1990) The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449-468.
Hall, H. K. (2006) Perfectionism: A Hallmark Quality of World Class Performers, or a Psychological Impediment to Athletic Development? Dieter Hackfort and Gershon Tenenbaum, (Editors), Perspectives in
Sport and Exercise Psychology, Volume 1, Essential Processes for Attaining Peak Performance. Pages 178-211. Meyer & Meyer Publishers, Oxford UK.
Hall, H. K. (2013) From adaptive achievement striving to athletic burnout: The debilitating influence of perfectionism. In D. Hackfort and I. Seidelmeier (Editors) Bridging Gaps in Applied Sport and Exercise
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Hall, H. K., Hill, A. P., & Appleton, P. R. (2012) Perfectionism: A foundation for sporting excellence or an uneasy pathway toward purgatory? In Roberts, G.C. & Treasure D. (2012) Advances in motivation in sport and exercise:, 3, 129-168. Human Kinetics Publishers.
Hall, H. K., Hill, A. P., & Appleton, P. R. (2013) Perfectionism: Its development, and its influence on emerging talent in youth sport. In Lidor, R. & Cote, J. Conditions of Children's Talent Development in Sport, 117-137. FIT Publishers.
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Life is short. So we are told. And I guess its easy to forget this until we are faced
with catastrophe or timelines. When we only have a couple of days left of something, or when we are faced with trauma. This provokes us to be more conscious of the fact, "life is short". Things
in life, usually the difficult things, freeze us for a moment, and make us reflect. Reflect on whats important to you, your goals, achievements and whether you have did all you want.
Veronika Decides To Die by Paulo coehlo shows this in fine detail. Veronika is a beautiful young woman who appears to have the perfect life, but nevertheless decides to commit suicide by ingesting too many sleeping pills. While she waits to die, she decides to read a magazine. After seeing an article in the magazine which wittily asks "Where is Slovenia?," she decides to write a letter to the press justifying her suicide, the idea being to make the press believe that she has killed herself because people don't
even know where Slovenia is. Her plan fails and she wakes up in Villete, a mental hospital in Slovenia, where she is told she has only a few days to live. Her presence there affects all of the mental hospital's patients, especially Zedka, who has clinical depression; Mari, who suffers from panic attacks; and Eduard, who has schizophrenia, and with whom Veronika falls in love.
During her internment in Villete she realises that she has nothing to lose and can therefore do what she wants, say what she wants and be who she wants without having to worry about what others think of her; as a mental patient, she is unlikely to be criticized. Because of this newfound freedom Veronika experiences all the things she never allowed herself to experience, including hatred and love. In the meantime, Villete's head psychiatrist, Dr. Igor, attempts a fascinating but provocative experiment: can you "shock" someone into wanting to live by convincing her that death is imminent? Like a doctor applying defibrillator paddles to a heart attack victim, Dr. Igor's "prognosis" jump-starts Veronika's new appreciation of the world around her (Wikipedia).
What would you do if you felt you could be free? What would you do if you didn't worry what people thought of you? What would you do if you thought you only had limited time to live?
But I know it is hard, it's hard to do all the things we want over than the things we should. To conform to society, build a reputation, make it in the field you want to be, achieve what you want to achieve.
So what if the world was to be stopped for you? What would you choose? Have you made all the right choices? Have you made all the right choices for you?
We spend days stressing about simple tasks instead of enjoying and having pride in completing them. Or pride in saying,
'yes life is too short and I am going to do what makes me happy'
Life is short. So live your dreams, love unconditionally, seek adventure and new experiences, and most importantly, enjoy!
Tracy Donachie, MSc in Performance Psychology.